Basic human rights and justice
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This makes it evident that we have to be just not only with regular people but also our enemies. The bottom line is that we have to be just even with our adversaries.
[5:42] They are upholders of lies, and eaters of illicit earnings. If they come to you to judge among them, you may judge among them, or you may disregard them. If you choose to disregard them, they cannot harm you in the least. But if you judge among them, you shall judge equitably. GOD loves those who are equitable.
There are three reasons which usually take people away from the path of justice: one is envy, one is hostility and the third is association. We are expressly exhorted by the Quran not to be influenced by these factors. [38:26] O David, we have made you a ruler on earth. Therefore, you shall judge among the people equitably, and do not follow your personal opinion, lest it diverts you from the way of GOD. Surely, those who stray off the way of GOD incur severe retribution for forgetting the Day of Reckoning. Usually whatever we do, we do for the sake of ourselves or our families but via this verse we are ordered that as believers we have to do justice for the sake of God who highlights its significance. Justice is to be uninfluenced by self interest.
Equality does not mean that each and every individual is equal in all respects. The sole criterion for giving preference is piety. [49:13] O people, we created you from the same male and female, and rendered you distinct peoples and tribes, that you may recognize one another. The best among you in the sight of GOD is the most righteous. GOD is Omniscient, Cognizant. We have to determine an issue on the basis of equity, impartiality, justice and honest evidence. We have to stand unyielding for justice even
though it may be disadvantageous to our own welfare. [16:90] GOD advocates justice, charity, and regarding the relatives. And He forbids evil, vice, and transgression. He enlightens you, that you may take heed.
[4:105] We have sent down to you the scripture, truthfully, in order to judge among the people in accordance with what GOD has shown you. You shall not side with the betrayers. Justice is the core, justice is the foundation. We have to be fair with all, Muslims, non Muslims, relatives, orphans, the poor and the needy.
Justice and equitable conduct is prescribed for all believers particularly on those who are in authority, who should advance and enhance the cause of justice in their particular scopes. [22:41] They are those who, if we appointed them as rulers on earth, they would establish the Contact Prayers (Salat) and the obligatory charity (Zakat), and would advocate righteousness and forbid evil. GOD is the ultimate ruler.
In general matters, the Quran imparts precise doctrines of primary significance as to the manner of providing justice. We have:
[4:32] You shall not covet the qualities bestowed upon each other by GOD; the men enjoy certain qualities, and the women enjoy certain qualities. You may implore GOD to shower you with His grace. GOD is fully aware of all things.
[2:188] You shall not take each others' money illicitly, nor shall you bribe the officials to deprive others of some of their rights illicitly, while you know.
[11:85] “O my people, you shall give full measure and full weight, equitably. Do not cheat the people out of their rights, and do not roam the earth corruptingly.
[17:35] You shall give full measure when you trade, and weigh equitably. This is better and more righteous.
[8:27] O you who believe, do not betray GOD and the messenger, and do not betray those who trust you, now that you know.
[2:283] If you are traveling, and no scribe is available,
a bond shall be posted to guarantee repayment. If one is trusted in this manner, he shall return the bond when due, and he shall observe GOD his Lord. Do not withhold any testimony by concealing what you had witnessed. Anyone who withholds a testimony is sinful at heart. GOD is fully aware of everything you do.
[17:34] You shall not touch the orphans' money except for their own good, until they reach maturity. You shall fulfill your covenants, for a covenant is a great responsibility.
[83:1] Woe to the cheaters.
[5:87] O you who believe, do not prohibit good things that are made lawful by GOD, and do not aggress; GOD dislikes the aggressors.
Also, in respect to punishment the Quran says [42:40] Although the just requital for an injustice is an equivalent retribution, those who pardon and maintain righteousness are rewarded by GOD. He does not love the unjust. This means that the penalty should be proportionate to the violation perpetrated. However, the act of pardoning and making a settlement is ideal if the wronged or offended person so desires.
[42:42-43] The wrong ones are those who treat the people unjustly, and resort to aggression without provocation. These have incurred a painful retribution. Resorting to patience and forgiveness reflects a true strength of character.
At the same time, the Quran acknowledges the merit of self defense. [26:227] Exempted are those who believe, lead a righteous life, commemorate GOD frequently, and stand up for their rights. Surely, the transgressors will find out what their ultimate destiny is.
In conclusion, justice in Islam (Submission) is more all-inclusive and essential than in any other way
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